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BackgroundRemote ischaemic conditioning with transient ischaemia and reperfusion applied to the arm has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We investigated whether remote ischaemic conditioning could reduce the incidence of cardiac death and hospitalisation for heart failure at 12 months.MethodsWe did an international investigator-initiated, prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled trial (CONDI-2/ERIC-PPCI) at 33 centres across the UK, Denmark, Spain, and Serbia. Patients (age >18 years) with suspected STEMI and who were eligible for PPCI were randomly allocated (1:1, stratified by centre with a permuted block method) to receive standard treatment (including a sham simulated remote ischaemic conditioning intervention at UK sites only) or remote ischaemic conditioning treatment (intermittent ischaemia and reperfusion applied to the arm through four cycles of 5-min inflation and 5-min deflation of an automated cuff device) before PPCI. Investigators responsible for data collection and outcome assessment were masked to treatment allocation. The primary combined endpoint was cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure at 12 months in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with (NCT02342522) and is completed.FindingsBetween Nov 6, 2013, and March 31, 2018, 5401 patients were randomly allocated to either the control group (n=2701) or the remote ischaemic conditioning group (n=2700). After exclusion of patients upon hospital arrival or loss to follow-up, 2569 patients in the control group and 2546 in the intervention group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 12 months post-PPCI, the Kaplan-Meier-estimated frequencies of cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure (the primary endpoint) were 220 (8·6%) patients in the control group and 239 (9·4%) in the remote ischaemic conditioning group (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 0·91-1·32], p=0·32 for intervention versus control). No important unexpected adverse events or side effects of remote ischaemic conditioning were observed.InterpretationRemote ischaemic conditioning does not improve clinical outcomes (cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure) at 12 months in patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI.FundingBritish Heart Foundation, University College London Hospitals/University College London Biomedical Research Centre, Danish Innovation Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, TrygFonden.

Original publication




Journal article


Lancet (London, England)

Publication Date





1415 - 1424


The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, London, UK; National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospitals, Research & Development, London, UK; Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore; National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Singapore, Singapore; Centro de Biotecnologia-FEMSA, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico. Electronic address:


CONDI-2/ERIC-PPCI Investigators, Humans, Death, Sudden, Cardiac, Myocardial Infarction, Treatment Outcome, Combined Modality Therapy, Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial, Hospitalization, Prospective Studies, Single-Blind Method, Aged, Middle Aged, Female, Male, Heart Failure, Intention to Treat Analysis, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, United Kingdom