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Purpose of reviewTo summarize the recent literature (2008-2010) on antiretroviral (ARV) drug disposition into the male and female genital tract.Recent findingsRecent studies have confirmed that penetration of antiretroviral agents into the male and female genital tracts are both drug and sex specific. Concentrations achieved vary considerably depending on the class of drug studied, the sampling techniques used and the times samples are obtained.SummaryThere appear to be several patterns of drug penetration into the male and female genital tract. In addition there appear to be different patterns of genital shedding under the influence of antiretroviral therapy. What effect these factors will have on the sexual transmission of HIV or the evolution and transmission of resistant HIV remains to be seen.

Original publication




Journal article


Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

Publication Date





335 - 343


Department of Sexual Health and HIV Medicine, Directorate of Infection, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.


Genitalia, Female, Genitalia, Male, Humans, HIV Infections, Anti-Retroviral Agents, Virus Shedding, Female, Male, Disease Transmission, Infectious