Malaria and Dengue Mosquito Vectors from Lao PDR Show a Lack of the rdl Mutant Allele Responsible for Cyclodiene Insecticide Resistance.
Marcombe S., Thammavong P., Luangamath P., Chonephetsarath S., Phommavanh N., Lakeomany K., Nilaxay S., Rahmani Z., Saverton PJ., Abdullateef OH., Forward J., Jacob AE., Khadam S., Ali W., Boer C., Kakinuma H., Hawkins J., Longstreeth R., Portwood NM., Smee M., Brown N., Kuyucu NC., Lechmere S., Stieger G., Maithaviphet S., Nambanya S., Brey PT., Jones AK.
The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, RDL, plays important roles in neuronal signaling and is the target of highly effective insecticides. A mutation in RDL, commonly A296S, underlies resistance to several insecticides such as cyclodienes. Even though the use of cyclodienes has been banned, the occurrence of mutations substituting A296 is notably high in mosquitoes from several countries. Here, we report a survey investigating the prevalence of the Rdl mutant allele in mosquitoes from Laos, a country where mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever are health concerns. Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes were collected from 12 provinces in Laos. Adult bioassays on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) showed that all the populations tested were susceptible to dieldrin (4%) following WHO protocols. Exon 7 from a total of 791 mosquitoes was sequenced to identify the amino acid encoded for at 296 of RDL. Only one of these mosquitoes, Anopheles maculatus rampae Harbach and Somboon (Diptera: Culicidae) from Attapeu, carried the mutant allele being heterozygous for A296S. We therefore found a general lack of the Rdl mutant allele indicating that mosquitoes from Laos are not exposed to insecticides that act on the GABA receptor compared to mosquitoes in several other countries. Identifying the prevalence of the Rdl mutation may help inform the potential use of alternative insecticides that act on the GABA receptor should there be a need to replace pyrethroids in order to prevent/manage resistance.