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Vaccination has been well recognised as a critically important tool in preventing infectious disease, yet incomplete immunisation coverage remains a major obstacle to achieving disease control and eradication. As medical products for global access, vaccines need to be safe, effective and inexpensive. In line with these goals, continuous improvements of vaccine delivery strategies are necessary to achieve the full potential of immunisation. Novel technologies related to vaccine delivery and route of administration, use of advanced adjuvants and controlled antigen release (single-dose immunisation) approaches are expected to contribute to improved coverage and patient compliance. This review discusses the application of micro- and nano-technologies in the alternative routes of vaccine administration (mucosal and cutaneous vaccination), oral vaccine delivery as well as vaccine encapsulation with the aim of controlled antigen release for single-dose vaccination.

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Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Western Switzerland, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1221 Geneva, Switzerland.