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BackgroundMitral valve (MV) and tricuspid valve (TV) apparatus geometry are essential to define mechanisms and etiologies of regurgitation and to inform surgical or transcatheter interventions. Given the increasing use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for the evaluation of valvular heart disease, we aimed to establish CMR-derived age- and sex-specific reference values for mitral annular (MA) and tricuspid annular (TA) dimensions and tethering indices derived from truly healthy Caucasian adults.Methods5065 consecutive UK Biobank participants underwent CMR using cine balanced steady-state free precession imaging at 1.5 T. Participants with non-Caucasian ethnicity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and other conditions known to affect cardiac chamber size and function were excluded. Absolute and indexed reference ranges for MA and TA diameters and tethering indices were stratified by gender and age (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years).ResultsOverall, 721 (14.2%) truly healthy participants aged 45-74 years (54% women) formed the reference cohort. Absolute MA and TA diameters, MV tenting length and MV tenting area, were significantly larger in men. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) end-diastolic and end-systolic MA diameters in the 3-chamber view (anteroposterior diameter) were 2.9 ± 0.4 cm (1.5 ± 0.2 cm/m2) and 3.3 ± 0.4 cm (1.7 ± 0.2 cm/m2) in men, and 2.6 ± 0.4 cm (1.6 ± 0.2 cm/m2) and 3.0 ± 0.4 cm (1.8 ± 0.2 cm/m2) in women, respectively. Mean ± SD end-diastolic and end-systolic TA diameters in the 4-chamber view were 3.2 ± 0.5 cm (1.6 ± 0.3 cm/m2) and 3.2 ± 0.5 cm (1.7 ± 0.3 cm/m2) in men, and 2.9 ± 0.4 cm (1.7 ± 0.2 cm/m2) and 2.8 ± 0.4 cm (1.7 ± 0.3 cm/m2) in women, respectively. With advancing age, end-diastolic TA diameter became larger and posterior MV leaflet angle smaller in both sexes. Reproducibility of measurements was good to excellent with an inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.92 and 0.98 and an intra-rater ICC between 0.90 and 0.97.ConclusionsWe described age- and sex-specific reference ranges of MA and TA dimensions and tethering indices in the largest validated healthy Caucasian population. Reference ranges presented in this study may help to improve the distinction between normal and pathological states, prompting the identification of subjects that may benefit from advanced cardiac imaging for annular sizing and planning of valvular interventions.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

Publication Date





Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, "G.D'Annunzio" University, Chieti, Italy.