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BackgroundArtificial intelligence (AI) techniques have been proposed for automation of cine CMR segmentation for functional quantification. However, in other applications AI models have been shown to have potential for sex and/or racial bias. The objective of this paper is to perform the first analysis of sex/racial bias in AI-based cine CMR segmentation using a large-scale database.MethodsA state-of-the-art deep learning (DL) model was used for automatic segmentation of both ventricles and the myocardium from cine short-axis CMR. The dataset consisted of end-diastole and end-systole short-axis cine CMR images of 5,903 subjects from the UK Biobank database (61.5 ± 7.1 years, 52% male, 81% white). To assess sex and racial bias, we compared Dice scores and errors in measurements of biventricular volumes and function between patients grouped by race and sex. To investigate whether segmentation bias could be explained by potential confounders, a multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA were performed.ResultsResults on the overall population showed an excellent agreement between the manual and automatic segmentations. We found statistically significant differences in Dice scores between races (white ∼94% vs. minority ethnic groups 86-89%) as well as in absolute/relative errors in volumetric and functional measures, showing that the AI model was biased against minority racial groups, even after correction for possible confounders. The results of a multivariate linear regression analysis showed that no covariate could explain the Dice score bias between racial groups. However, for the Mixed and Black race groups, sex showed a weak positive association with the Dice score. The results of an ANCOVA analysis showed that race was the main factor that can explain the overall difference in Dice scores between racial groups.ConclusionWe have shown that racial bias can exist in DL-based cine CMR segmentation models when training with a database that is sex-balanced but not race-balanced such as the UK Biobank.

Original publication




Journal article


Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine

Publication Date





School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.